Saltar al contenido principal
LibreTexts Español

22.9: Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

  • Page ID
    1994
  • Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
    Substance \(ΔH^∘_\ce{f}\) (kJ mol) \(ΔG^∘_\ce{f}\) (kJ mol–1) \(S^∘_{298}\) (J K–1 mol–1)
    aluminum
    Al(s) 0 0 28.3
    Al(g) 324.4 285.7 164.54
    \(\ce{Al^{3+}} \left( aq \right)\) -531 -485 -321.7
    Al2O3(s) –1676 –1582 50.92
    AlF3(s) –1510.4 –1425 66.5
    AlCl3(s) –704.2 –628.8 110.67
    AlCl3·6H2O(s) –2691.57 –2269.40 376.56
    Al2S3(s) –724.0 –492.4 116.9
    Al2(SO4)3(s) –3445.06 –3506.61 239.32
    antimony
    Sb(s) 0 0 45.69
    Sb(g) 262.34 222.17 180.16
    Sb4O6(s) –1440.55 –1268.17 220.92
    SbCl3(g) –313.8 –301.2 337.80
    SbCl5(g) –394.34 –334.29 401.94
    Sb2S3(s) –174.89 –173.64 182.00
    SbCl3(s) –382.17 –323.72 184.10
    SbOCl(s) –374.0
    arsenic
    As(s) 0 0 35.1
    As(g) 302.5 261.0 174.21
    As4(g) 143.9 92.4 314
    As4O6(s) –1313.94 –1152.52 214.22
    As2O5(s) –924.87 –782.41 105.44
    AsCl3(g) –261.50 –248.95 327.06
    As2S3(s) –169.03 –168.62 163.59
    AsH3(g) 66.44 68.93 222.78
    H3AsO4(s) –906.3
    barium
    Ba(s) 0 0 62.5
    Ba(g) 180 146 170.24
    \(\ce{Ba^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -537.6 -560.8 9.6
    BaO(s) –548.0 –520.3 72.1
    BaCl2(s) –855.0 –806.7 123.7
    BaSO4(s) –1473.2 –1362.3 132.2
    beryllium
    Be(s) 0 0 9.50
    Be(g) 324.3 286.6 136.27
    BeO(s) –609.4 –580.1 13.8
    bismuth
    Bi(s) 0 0 56.74
    Bi(g) 207.1 168.2 187.00
    Bi2O3(s) –573.88 –493.7 151.5
    BiCl3(s) –379.07 –315.06 176.98
    Bi2S3(s) –143.1 –140.6 200.4
    boron
    B(s) 0 0 5.86
    B(g) 565.0 521.0 153.4
    B2O3(s) –1273.5 –1194.3 53.97
    B2H6(g) 36.4 87.6 232.1
    H3BO3(s) –1094.33 –968.92 88.83
    BF3(g) –1136.0 –1119.4 254.4
    BCl3(g) –403.8 –388.7 290.1
    B3N3H6(l) –540.99 –392.79 199.58
    HBO2(s) –794.25 –723.41 37.66
    bromine
    Br2(l) 0 0 152.23
    Br2(g) 30.91 3.142 245.5
    Br(g) 111.88 82.429 175.0
    \(\ce{Br^-} \left( aq \right)\) -120.9 -102.82 80.71
    BrF3(g) –255.60 –229.45 292.42
    HBr(g) –36.3 –53.43 198.7
    cadmium
    Cd(s) 0 0 51.76
    Cd(g) 112.01 77.41 167.75
    \(\ce{Cd^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -75.90 -77.61 -73.2
    CdO(s) –258.2 –228.4 54.8
    CdCl2(s) –391.5 –343.9 115.3
    CdSO4(s) –933.3 –822.7 123.0
    CdS(s) –161.9 –156.5 64.9
    calcium
    Ca(s) 0 0 41.6
    Ca(g) 178.2 144.3 154.88
    \(\ce{Ca^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -542.96 -553.04 -55.2
    CaO(s) –634.9 –603.3 38.1
    Ca(OH)2(s) –985.2 –897.5 83.4
    CaSO4(s) –1434.5 –1322.0 106.5
    CaSO4·2H2O(s) –2022.63 –1797.45 194.14
    CaCO3(s) (calcite) –1220.0 –1081.4 110.0
    CaSO3·H2O(s) –1752.68 –1555.19 184.10
    carbon
    C(s) (graphite) 0 0 5.740
    C(s) (diamond) 1.89 2.90 2.38
    C(g) 716.681 671.2 158.1
    CO(g) –110.52 –137.15 197.7
    CO2(g) –393.51 –394.36 213.8
    \(\ce{CO_3^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -677.1 -527.8 -56.9
    CH4(g) –74.6 –50.5 186.3
    CH3OH(l) –239.2 –166.6 126.8
    CH3OH(g) –201.0 –162.3 239.9
    CCl4(l) –128.2 –62.5 214.4
    CCl4(g) –95.7 –58.2 309.7
    CHCl3(l) –134.1 –73.7 201.7
    CHCl3(g) –103.14 –70.34 295.71
    CS2(l) 89.70 65.27 151.34
    CS2(g) 116.9 66.8 238.0
    C2H2(g) 227.4 209.2 200.9
    C2H4(g) 52.4 68.4 219.3
    C2H6(g) –84.0 –32.0 229.2
    CH3CO2H(l) –484.3 –389.9 159.8
    CH3CO2H(g) –434.84 –376.69 282.50
    C2H5OH(l) –277.6 –174.8 160.7
    C2H5OH(g) –234.8 –167.9 281.6
    \(\ce{HCO_3^-} \left( aq \right)\) -691.11 -587.06 95
    C3H8(g) –103.8 –23.4 270.3
    C6H6(g) 82.927 129.66 269.2
    C6H6(l) 49.1 124.50 173.4
    CH2Cl2(l) –124.2 –63.2 177.8
    CH2Cl2(g) –95.4 –65.90 270.2
    CH3Cl(g) –81.9 –60.2 234.6
    C2H5Cl(l) –136.52 –59.31 190.79
    C2H5Cl(g) –112.17 –60.39 276.00
    C2N2(g) 308.98 297.36 241.90
    HCN(l) 108.9 125.0 112.8
    HCN(g) 135.5 124.7 201.8
    cesium
    \(\ce{Cs^+} \left( aq \right)\) -248 -282.0 133
    chlorine
    Cl2(g) 0 0 223.1
    Cl(g) 121.3 105.70 165.2
    \(\ce{Cl^-} \left( aq \right)\) -167.2 -131.2 56.5
    ClF(g) –54.48 –55.94 217.78
    ClF3(g) –158.99 –118.83 281.50
    Cl2O(g) 80.3 97.9 266.2
    Cl2O7(l) 238.1
    Cl2O7(g) 272.0
    HCl(g) –92.307 –95.299 186.9
    HClO4(l) –40.58
    chromium
    Cr(s) 0 0 23.77
    Cr(g) 396.6 351.8 174.50
    \(\ce{CrO_4^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -881.2 -727.8 50.21
    \(\ce{Cr_2O_7^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -1490.3 -1301.1 261.9
    Cr2O3(s) –1139.7 –1058.1 81.2
    CrO3(s) –589.5
    (NH4)2Cr2O7(s) –1806.7
    cobalt
    Co(s) 0 0 30.0
    \(\ce{Co^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -67.4 -51.5 -155
    \(\ce{Co^{3+}} \left( aq \right)\) 92 134 -305.0
    CoO(s) –237.9 –214.2 52.97
    Co3O4(s) –910.02 –794.98 114.22
    Co(NO3)2(s) –420.5
    copper
    Cu(s) 0 0 33.15
    Cu(g) 338.32 298.58 166.38
    \(\ce{Cu^+} \left( aq \right)\) 51.9 50.2 -26
    \(\ce{Cu^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) 64.77 65.49 -99.6
    CuO(s) –157.3 –129.7 42.63
    Cu2O(s) –168.6 –146.0 93.14
    CuS(s) –53.1 –53.6 66.5
    Cu2S(s) –79.5 –86.2 120.9
    CuSO4(s) –771.36 –662.2 109.2
    Cu(NO3)2(s) –302.9
    fluorine
    F2(g) 0 0 202.8
    F(g) 79.4 62.3 158.8
    \(\ce{F^-} \left( aq \right)\) -332.6 -278.8 -13.8
    F2O(g) 24.7 41.9 247.43
    HF(g) –273.3 –275.4 173.8
    hydrogen
    H2(g) 0 0 130.7
    H(g) 217.97 203.26 114.7
    \(\ce{H^+} \left( aq \right)\) 0 0 0
    \(\ce{OH^-} \left( aq \right)\) -230.0 -157.2 -10.75
    \(\ce{H_3O^+} \left( aq \right)\) -285.8   69.91
    H2O(l) –285.83 –237.1 70.0
    H2O(g) –241.82 –228.59 188.8
    H2O2(l) –187.78 –120.35 109.6
    H2O2(g) –136.3 –105.6 232.7
    HF(g) –273.3 –275.4 173.8
    HCl(g) –92.307 –95.299 186.9
    HBr(g) –36.3 –53.43 198.7
    HI(g) 26.48 1.70 206.59
    H2S(g) –20.6 –33.4 205.8
    H2Se(g) 29.7 15.9 219.0
    iodine
    I2(s) 0 0 116.14
    I2(g) 62.438 19.3 260.7
    I(g) 106.84 70.2 180.8
    \(\ce{I^-} \left( aq \right)\) -55.19 -51.57 11.13
    IF(g) 95.65 –118.49 236.06
    ICl(g) 17.78 –5.44 247.44
    IBr(g) 40.84 3.72 258.66
    IF7(g) –943.91 –818.39 346.44
    HI(g) 26.48 1.70 206.59
    iron
    Fe(s) 0 0 27.3
    Fe(g) 416.3 370.7 180.5
    \(\ce{Fe^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -89.1 -78.90 -137.7
    \(\ce{Fe^{3+}} \left( aq \right)\) -48.5 -4.7 -315.9
    Fe2O3(s) –824.2 –742.2 87.40
    Fe3O4(s) –1118.4 –1015.4 146.4
    Fe(CO)5(l) –774.04 –705.42 338.07
    Fe(CO)5(g) –733.87 –697.26 445.18
    FeCl2(s) –341.79 –302.30 117.95
    FeCl3(s) –399.49 –334.00 142.3
    FeO(s) –272.0 –255.2 60.75
    Fe(OH)2(s) –569.0 –486.5 88.
    Fe(OH)3(s) –823.0 –696.5 106.7
    FeS(s) –100.0 –100.4 60.29
    Fe3C(s) 25.10 20.08 104.60
    lead
    Pb(s) 0 0 64.81
    Pb(g) 195.2 162. 175.4
    \(\ce{Pb^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -1.7 -24.43 10.5
    PbO(s) (yellow) –217.32 –187.89 68.70
    PbO(s) (red) –218.99 –188.93 66.5
    Pb(OH)2(s) –515.9
    PbS(s) –100.4 –98.7 91.2
    Pb(NO3)2(s) –451.9
    PbO2(s) –277.4 –217.3 68.6
    PbCl2(s) –359.4 –314.1 136.0
    lithium
    Li(s) 0 0 29.1
    Li(g) 159.3 126.6 138.8
    \(\ce{Li^+} \left( aq \right)\) -278.5 -293.3 13.4
    LiH(s) –90.5 –68.3 20.0
    Li(OH)(s) –487.5 –441.5 42.8
    LiF(s) –616.0 –587.5 35.7
    Li2CO3(s) –1216.04 –1132.19 90.17
    magnesium
    \(\ce{Mg^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -466.9 -454.8 -138.1
    manganese
    Mn(s) 0 0 32.0
    Mn(g) 280.7 238.5 173.7
    \(\ce{Mn^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -220.8 -228.1 -73.6
    MnO(s) –385.2 –362.9 59.71
    MnO2(s) –520.03 –465.1 53.05
    Mn2O3(s) –958.97 –881.15 110.46
    Mn3O4(s) –1378.83 –1283.23 155.64
    \(\ce{MnO_4^-} \left( aq \right)\) -541.4 -447.2 191.2
    \(\ce{MnO_4^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -653.0 -500.7 59
    mercury
    Hg(l) 0 0 75.9
    Hg(g) 61.4 31.8 175.0
    \(\ce{Hg^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\)   164.8  
    \(\ce{Hg_2^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) 172.4 153.9 84.5
    HgO(s) (red) –90.83 –58.5 70.29
    HgO(s) (yellow) –90.46 –58.43 71.13
    HgCl2(s) –224.3 –178.6 146.0
    Hg2Cl2(s) –265.4 –210.7 191.6
    HgS(s) (red) –58.16 –50.6 82.4
    HgS(s) (black) –53.56 –47.70 88.28
    HgSO4(s) –707.51 –594.13 0.00
    nitrogen
    N2(g) 0 0 191.6
    N(g) 472.704 455.5 153.3
    NO(g) 90.25 87.6 210.8
    NO2(g) 33.2 51.30 240.1
    N2O(g) 81.6 103.7 220.0
    N2O3(g) 83.72 139.41 312.17
    \(\ce{NO_3^-} \left( aq \right)\) -205.0 -108.7 146.4
    N2O4(g) 11.1 99.8 304.4
    N2O5(g) 11.3 115.1 355.7
    NH3(g) –45.9 –16.5 192.8
    \(\ce{NH_4^+} \left( aq \right)\) -132.5 -79.31 113.4
    N2H4(l) 50.63 149.43 121.21
    N2H4(g) 95.4 159.4 238.5
    NH4NO3(s) –365.56 –183.87 151.08
    NH4Cl(s) –314.43 –202.87 94.6
    NH4Br(s) –270.8 –175.2 113.0
    NH4I(s) –201.4 –112.5 117.0
    NH4NO2(s) –256.5
    HNO3(l) –174.1 –80.7 155.6
    HNO3(g) –133.9 –73.5 266.9
    oxygen
    O2(g) 0 0 205.2
    O(g) 249.17 231.7 161.1
    O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9
    phosphorus
    P4(s) 0 0 164.4
    P4(g) 58.91 24.4 280.0
    P(g) 314.64 278.25 163.19
    PH3(g) 5.4 13.5 210.2
    PCl3(g) –287.0 –267.8 311.78
    PCl5(g) –374.9 –305.0 364.4
    P4O6(s) –1640.1
    P4O10(s) –2984.0 –2697.0 228.86
    \(\ce{PO_4^{3-}} \left( aq \right)\) -1277 -1019 -222
    HPO3(s) –948.5
    \(\ce{HPO_4^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -1292.1 -1089.3 -33
    \(\ce{H_2PO_4^-} \left( aq \right)\) -1296.3 -1130.4 90.4
    H3PO2(s) –604.6
    H3PO3(s) –964.4
    H3PO4(s) –1279.0 –1119.1 110.50
    H3PO4(l) –1266.9 –1124.3 110.5
    H4P2O7(s) –2241.0
    POCl3(l) –597.1 –520.8 222.5
    POCl3(g) –558.5 –512.9 325.5
    potassium
    K(s) 0 0 64.7
    K(g) 89.0 60.5 160.3
    \(\ce{K^+} \left( aq \right)\) -252.4 -283.3 102.5
    KF(s) –576.27 –537.75 66.57
    KCl(s) –436.5 –408.5 82.6
    rubidium
    \(\ce{Rb^+} \left( aq \right)\) -246 -282.2 124
    silicon
    Si(s) 0 0 18.8
    Si(g) 450.0 405.5 168.0
    SiO2(s) –910.7 –856.3 41.5
    SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6
    H2SiO3(s) –1188.67 –1092.44 133.89
    H4SiO4(s) –1481.14 –1333.02 192.46
    SiF4(g) –1615.0 –1572.8 282.8
    SiCl4(l) –687.0 –619.8 239.7
    SiCl4(g) –662.75 –622.58 330.62
    SiC(s, beta cubic) –73.22 –70.71 16.61
    SiC(s, alpha hexagonal) –71.55 –69.04 16.48
    silver
    Ag(s) 0 0 42.55
    Ag(g) 284.9 246.0 172.89
    \(\ce{Ag^+} \left( aq \right)\) 105.6 77.11 72.68
    Ag2O(s) –31.05 –11.20 121.3
    AgCl(s) –127.0 –109.8 96.3
    Ag2S(s) –32.6 –40.7 144.0
    sodium
    Na(s) 0 0 51.3
    Na(g) 107.5 77.0 153.7
    \(\ce{Na^+} \left( aq \right)\) -240.1 -261.9 59
    Na2O(s) –414.2 –375.5 75.1
    NaCl(s) –411.2 –384.1 72.1
    strontium
    \(\ce{Sr^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -545.8 -557.3 -32.6
    sulfur
    S8(s) (rhombic) 0 0 256.8
    S(g) 278.81 238.25 167.82
    \(\ce{S^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) 41.8 83.7 22
    SO2(g) –296.83 –300.1 248.2
    SO3(g) –395.72 –371.06 256.76
    \(\ce{SO_4^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -909.3 -744.5 20.1
    \(\ce{S_2O_3^{2-}} \left( aq \right)\) -648.5 -522.5 67
    H2S(g) –20.6 –33.4 205.8
    \(\ce{HS^-} \left( aq \right)\) -17.7 12.6 61.1
    H2SO4(l) –813.989 690.00 156.90
    \(\ce{HSO_4^-} \left( aq \right)\) -885.75 -752.87 126.9
    H2S2O7(s) –1273.6
    SF4(g) –728.43 –684.84 291.12
    SF6(g) –1220.5 –1116.5 291.5
    SCl2(l) –50
    SCl2(g) –19.7
    S2Cl2(l) –59.4
    S2Cl2(g) –19.50 –29.25 319.45
    SOCl2(g) –212.55 –198.32 309.66
    SOCl2(l) –245.6
    SO2Cl2(l) –394.1
    SO2Cl2(g) –354.80 –310.45 311.83
    tin
    Sn(s) 0 0 51.2
    Sn(g) 301.2 266.2 168.5
    SnO(s) –285.8 –256.9 56.5
    SnO2(s) –577.6 –515.8 49.0
    SnCl4(l) –511.3 –440.1 258.6
    SnCl4(g) –471.5 –432.2 365.8
    titanium
    Ti(s) 0 0 30.7
    Ti(g) 473.0 428.4 180.3
    TiO2(s) –944.0 –888.8 50.6
    TiCl4(l) –804.2 –737.2 252.4
    TiCl4(g) –763.2 –726.3 353.2
    tungsten
    W(s) 0 0 32.6
    W(g) 849.4 807.1 174.0
    WO3(s) –842.9 –764.0 75.9
    zinc
    Zn(s) 0 0 41.6
    Zn(g) 130.73 95.14 160.98
    \(\ce{Zn^{2+}} \left( aq \right)\) -153.9 -147.1 -112.1
    ZnO(s) –350.5 –320.5 43.7
    ZnCl2(s) –415.1 –369.43 111.5
    ZnS(s) –206.0 –201.3 57.7
    ZnSO4(s) –982.8 –871.5 110.5
    ZnCO3(s) –812.78 –731.57 82.42
    complexes
    [Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, cis –898.7
    [Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, trans –896.2
    NH4[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4] –837.6
    [Co(NH3)6][Co(NH3)2(NO2)4]3 –2733.0
    [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, cis –874.9
    [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, trans –877.4
    [Co(en)2(NO2)2]NO3, cis –689.5
    [Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, cis –681.2
    [Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, trans –677.4
    [Co(en)3](ClO4)3 –762.7
    [Co(en)3]Br2 –595.8
    [Co(en)3]I2 –475.3
    [Co(en)3]I3 –519.2
    [Co(NH3)6](ClO4)3 –1034.7 –221.1 615
    [Co(NH3)5NO2](NO3)2 –1088.7 –412.9 331
    [Co(NH3)6](NO3)3 –1282.0 –524.5 448
    [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 –1017.1 –582.5 366.1
    [Pt(NH3)4]Cl2 –725.5
    [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2 –994.1
    [Ni(NH3)6]Br2 –923.8
    [Ni(NH3)6]I2 –808.3