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22.12: Water Properties

  • Page ID
    1997
  • Water Density (kg/m3) at Different Temperatures (°C)
    Temperature1 Density
    0 999.8395
    4 999.9720 (density maximum)
    10 999.7026
    15 999.1026
    20 998.2071
    22 997.7735
    25 997.0479
    30 995.6502
    40 992.2
    60 983.2
    80 971.8
    100 958.4

     

    Water Vapor Pressure at Different Temperatures (°C)
    Temperature Vapor Pressure (torr) Vapor Pressure (Pa)
    0 4.6 613.2812
    4 6.1 813.2642
    10 9.2 1226.562
    15 12.8 1706.522
    20 17.5 2333.135
    22 19.8 2639.776
    25 23.8 3173.064
    30 31.8 4239.64
    35 42.2 5626.188
    40 55.3 7372.707
    45 71.9 9585.852
    50 92.5 12332.29
    55 118.0 15732
    60 149.4 19918.31
    65 187.5 24997.88
    70 233.7 31157.35
    75 289.1 38543.39
    80 355.1 47342.64
    85 433.6 57808.42
    90 525.8 70100.71
    95 633.9 84512.82
    100 760.0 101324.7

     

    Water Kw and pKw at Different Temperatures (°C)
    Temperature Kw 10–14 pKw2
    0 0.112 14.95
    5 0.182 14.74
    10 0.288 14.54
    15 0.465 14.33
    20 0.671 14.17
    25 0.991 14.00
    30 1.432 13.84
    35 2.042 13.69
    40 2.851 13.55
    45 3.917 13.41
    50 5.297 13.28
    55 7.080 13.15
    60 9.311 13.03
    75 19.95 12.70
    100 56.23 12.25

     

    Specific Heat Capacity for Water
    C°(H2O(l)) = 4184 J∙K−1∙kg−1 = 4.184 J∙g-1∙°C-1
    C°(H2O(s)) = 1864 J∙K−1∙kg−1
    C°(H2O(g)) = 2093 J∙K−1∙kg−1
    Standard Water Melting and Boiling Temperatures and Enthalpies of the Transitions
      Temperature (K) ΔH (kJ/mol)
    melting 273.15 6.088
    boiling 373.15 40.656 (44.016 at 298 K)
    Water Cryoscopic (Freezing Point Depression) and Ebullioscopic (Boiling Point Elevation) Constants
    Kf = 1.86°C∙kg∙mol−1 (cryoscopic constant)
    Kb = 0.51°C∙kg∙mol−1 (ebullioscopic constant)

    <figure class="ui-has-child-figcaption" id="CNX_Chem_00_EE_LiqWatAbso"> <figcaption>Water full-range spectral absorption curve. This curve shows the full-range spectral absorption for water. The y-axis signifies the absorption in 1/cm. If we divide 1 by this value, we will obtain the length of the path (in cm) after which the intensity of a light beam passing through water decays by a factor of the base of the natural logarithm e (e = 2.718281828).</figcaption> </figure>

    Footnotes

    1. 1 Data for t < 0 °C are for supercooled water
    2. 2 pKw = –log10(Kw)