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# 12.6: Apéndice 2- Valores termodinámicos seleccionados

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Valores termodinámicos seleccionados (a 298.15 K)

Sustancia ΔH f° (kJ/mol) S° (J/K·mol) ΔG f° (kJ/mol)
Aluminio
Al (s) 0 28.3 0
AlCl 3 (s) -704.2 110.67 -628.8
Al 2 O 3 (s) -1675.7 50.92 -1582.3
Bario
BacL 2 (s) -858.6 123.68 -810.4
BacL 2 • 2 H 2 O (s) -1460.1 203 -1296.5
BaO (s) -553.5 70.42 -525.1
Ba (OH) 2 • 8 H 2 O (s) -3342 427 -2793
BasO 4 (s) -1473.2 132.2 -1362.2
Berilio
Ser (s) 0 9.5 0
Ser (OH) 2 (s) -902.5 51.9 -815
Bromo
Br (g) 111.884 175.022 82.396
Br 2 (liq) 0 152.2 0
Br 2 (g) 30.907 245.463 3.11
BrF 3 (g) -255.6 292.53 -229.43
HBr (g) -36.4 198.695 -53.45
Calcio
Ca (s) 0 41.42 0
Ca (g) 178.2 158.884 144.3
Ca 2+ (g) 1925.9
CaC 2 (s) -59.8 69.96 -64.9
CaCo 3 (s; calcita) -1206.92 92.9 -1128.79
CaCl 2 (s) -795.8 104.6 -748.1
CaF 2 (s) -1219.6 68.87 -1167.3
CaH 2 (s) -186.2 42 -147.2
CaO (s) -635.09 39.75 -604.03
CA (s) -482.4 56.5 -477.4
Ca (OH) 2 (s) -986.09 83.39 -898.49
Ca (OH) 2 (aq) -1002.82 -74.5 -868.07
CaSO 4 (s) -1434.11 106.7 -1321.79
Carbono
C (s, grafito) 0 5.74 0
C (s, diamante) 1.895 2.377 2.9
C (g) 716.682 158.096 671.257
CCl 4 (liq) -135.44 216.4 -65.21
CCl 4 (g) -102.9 309.85 -60.59
CHCl 3 (liq) -134.47 201.7 -73.66
CHCl 3 (g) -103.14 295.71 -70.34
CH 4 (g, metano) -74.81 186.264 -50.72
C 2 H 2 (g, etino) 226.73 200.94 209.2
C2H4 (g, eteno) 52.26 219.56 68.15
C 2 H 6 (g, etano) -84.68 229.6 -32.82
C 3 H 8 (g, propano) -103.8 269.9 -23.49
C 4 H 10 (g, butano) -888.0
C 6 H 6 (liq, benceno) 49.03 172.8 124.5
C 6 H 14 (liq) -198.782 296.018 -4.035
C 8 H 18 (liq) -249.952 361.205 6.707
CH 3 OH (liq, metanol) -238.66 126.8 -166.27
CH 3 OH (g, metanol) -200.66 239.81 -161.96
C 2 H 5 OH (liq, etanol) -277.69 160.7 -174.78
C 2 H 5 OH (g, etanol) -235.1 282.7 -168.49
CH3COOH (liq) -276.981 160.666 -173.991
CO (NH 2) 2 (s, urea) -333.5 104.6 -197.4
CO (g) -110.525 197.674 -137.168
CO 2 (g) -393.509 213.74 -394.359
CS 2 (g) 117.36 237.84 67.12
COCl 2 (g) -218.8 283.53 -204.6
Cesio
Cs (s) 0 85.23 0
Cs + (g) 457.964
CsCl (s) -443.04 101.17 -414.53
Cloro
Cl (g) 121.679 165.198 105.68
Cl - (g) -233.13
Cl 2 (g) 0 223.066 0
HCl (g) -92.307 186.908 -95.299
HCl (ac) -167.159 56.5 -131.228
Cromo
Cr (s) 0 23.77 0
Cr 2 O 3 (s) -1139.7 81.2 -1058.1
CrCl 3 (s) -556.5 123 -486.1
Cobre
Cu (s) 0 33.15 0
CuO (s) -157.3 42.63 -129.7
CuCl 2 (s) -220.1 108.07 -175.7
Flúor
F 2 (g) 0 202.78 0
F (g) 78.99 158.754 61.91
F - (g) -255.39
F - (aq) -332.63 -13.8 -278.79
HF (g) -271.1 173.779 -273.2
HF (aq) -332.63 -13.8 -278.79
Hidrógeno
H 2 (g) 0 130.684 0
H (g) 217.965 114.713 203.247
H + (g) 1536.202
H 2 O (liq) -285.83 69.91 -237.129
H 2 O (g) -241.818 188.825 -228.572
H 2 O 2 (liq) -187.78 109.6 -120.35
Yodo
I 2 (s) 0 116.135 0
I 2 (g) 62.438 260.69 19.327
I (g) 106.838 180.791 70.25
I - (g) -197
iCL (g) 17.78 247.551 -5.46
Hierro
Fe (s) 0 27.78 0
FeO (s) -272
Fe 2 O 3 (s, hematita) -824.2 87.4 -742.2
Fe 3 O 4 (s, magnetita) -1118.4 146.4 -1015.4
FeCl 2 (s) -341.79 117.95 -302.3
FeCl 3 (s) -399.49 142.3 -344
FeS 2 (s, pirita) -178.2 52.93 -166.9
Fe (CO) 5 (liq) -774 338.1 -705.3
Plomo
Pb (s) 0 64.81 0
PbCl 2 (s) -359.41 136 -314.1
PbO (s, amarillo) -217.32 68.7 -187.89
PB (s) -100.4 91.2 -98.7
Litio
Li (s) 0 29.12 0
Li + (g) 685.783
LiOH (s) -484.93 42.8 -438.95
LiOH (ac) -508.48 2.8 -450.58
LiCl (s) -408.701 59.33 -384.37
Magnesio
Mg (s) 0 32.68 0
MgCl 2 (g) -641.32 89.62 -591.79
MgO (s) -601.7 26.94 -569.43
Mg (OH) 2 (s) -924.54 63.18 -833.51
MG (s) -346 50.33 -341.8
Mercurio
Hg (liq) 0 29.87 0
HgCl 2 (s) -224.3 146 -178.6
HgO (s, rojo) -90.83 70.29 -58.539
HgS (s, rojo) -58.2 82.4 -50.6
Níquel
Ni (s) 0 29.87 0
NiO (s) -239.7 37.99 -211.7
NiCl 2 (s) -305.332 97.65 -259.032
Nitrógeno
N2 (g) 0 191.61 0
N (g) 472.704 153.298 455.563
NH 3 (g) -46.11 192.45 -16.45
N 2 H 4 (liq) 50.63 121.21 149.34
NH 4 Cl (s) -314.43 94.6 -202.87
NH 4 Cl (aq) -299.66 169.9 -210.52
NH 4 NO 3 (s) -365.56 151.08 -183.87
NH 4 NO 3 (aq) -339.87 259.8 -190.56
NO (g) 90.25 210.76 86.55
NO 2 (g) 33.18 240.06 51.31
N 2 O (g) 82.05 219.85 104.2
N 2 O 4 (g) 9.16 304.29 97.89
NOCl (g) 51.71 261.69 66.08
HNO 3 (liq) -174.1 155.6 -80.71
HNO 3 (g) -135.06 266.38 -74.72
HNO 3 (ac) -207.36 146.4 -111.25
Oxígeno
O 2 (g) 0 205.138 0
O (g) 249.17 161.055 231.731
O 3 (g) 142.7 238.93 163.2
Fosforo
P 4 (s, blanco) 0 164.36 0
P 4 (s, rojo) -70.4 91.2 -48.4
P (g) 314.64 163.193 278.25
PH 3 (g) 5.4 310.23 13.4
PCl 3 (g) -287 311.78 -267.8
P 4 O 10 (s) -2984 228.86 -2697.7
H 3 PO 4 (s) -1279 110.5 -1119.1
Potasio
K (s) 0 64.18 0
KCl (s) -436.747 82.59 -409.14
KClO 3 (s) -397.73 143.1 -296.25
KI (s) -327.9 106.32 -324.892
KOH (s) -424.764 78.9 -379.08
KOH (aq) -482.37 91.6 -440.5
Silicio
Si (s) 0 18.83 0
SiBr 4 (liq) -457.3 277.8 -443.8
SiC (s) -65.3 16.61 -62.8
SiCl 4 (g) -657.01 330.73 -616.98
SiH 4 (g) 34.3 204.62 56.9
SiF 4 (g) -1614.94 282.49 -1572.65
SiO 2 (s, cuarzo) -910.94 41.84 -856.64
Plata
Ag (s) 0 42.55 0
Ag 2 O (s) -31.05 121.3 -11.2
AgCl (s) -127.068 96.2 -109.789
AgnO 3 (s) -124.39 140.92 -33.41
Sodio
Na (s) 0 51.21 0
Na (g) 107.32 153.712 76.761
Na + (g) 609.358
NaBr (s) -361.062 86.82 -348.983
NaCl (s) -411.153 72.13 -384.138
NaCl (g) -176.65 229.81 -196.66
NaCl (ac) -407.27 115.5 -393.133
NaOH (s) -425.609 64.455 -379.484
NaOH (ac) -470.114 48.1 -419.15
Na 2 CO 3 (s) -1130.68 134.98 -1044.44
Azufre
S (s, rómbico) 0 31.8 0
S (g) 278.805 167.821 238.25
S 2 Cl 2 (g) -18.4 331.5 -31.8
SF 6 (g) 1209 291.82 -1105.3
H 2 S (g) -20.63 205.79 -33.56
SO 2 (g) -296.83 248.22 -300.194
SO 3 (g) -395.72 256.76 -371.06
SOCl 2 (g) -212.5 309.77 -198.3
H2SO4 (liq) -813.989 156.904 -690.003
H 2 SO 4 (aq) -909.27 20.1 -744.53
Estaño
Sn (s, blanco) 0 51.55 0
Sn (s, gris) -2.09 44.14 0.13
SnCl 4 (liq) -511.3 248.6 -440.1
SnCl 4 (g) -471.5 365.8 -432.2
SnO 2 (s) -580.7 52.3 -519.6
Titanio
Ti (s) 0 30.63 0
TiCL 4 (liq) -804.2 252.34 -737.2
TiCl 4 (g) -763.2 354.9 -726.7
TiO 2 (s) -939.7 49.92 -884.5
Zinc
Zn (s) 0 41.63 0
ZnCl 2 (s) -415.05 111.46 -369.398
ZnO (s) -348.28 43.64 -318.3
ZnS (s, esfalerita) -205.98 57.7 -201.29
Iones acuosos y moléculas
Ca 2+ (ac) -542.96 -55.2 -553.04
CO 3 2- (aq) -676.26 -53.1 -528.1
CO 2 (aq) -413.8 117.6 -386.0
Cl - (aq) -167.16 56.5 -131.26
H + (aq) 0 0
HCO 2 - (aq) -410 91.6 -335
HCO 2 H (ac) -410 164 -356
HCO 3 - (aq) -691.11 95 -587.06
H 2 CO 3 (aq) -698.7 191 -623.42
NH 3 (ac) -80.29 111 -26.6
OH - (aq) -229.94 -10.54 -157.3
Ag + (aq) 105.58 72.68 77.124

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